De Chirico Giorgio
Giorgio de Chirico was born to Italian parents in Vólos, Greece, on July 10, 1888. He became interested in the art of Arnold Böcklin and Max Klinger and the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche and Arthur Schopenhauer. De Chirico moved to Milan in 1909, to Florence in 1910, and to Paris in 1911. In Paris he was included in the Salon d’Automne in 1912 and 1913 and in the Salon des Indépendants in 1913 and 1914. As a frequent visitor to Guillaume Apollinaire’s weekly gatherings, he met Constantin Brancusi, André Derain, Max Jacob, and others. Because of the war, in 1915 de Chirico returned to Italy, where he met Filippo de Pisis in 1916 and Carlo Carrà in 1917; they formed the group that was later called the Scuola Metafisica and he became appreciated in all the world for his fomus “manichini” and the “piazza d’Italia”. The artist moved to Rome in 1918, and was given his first solo exhibition at the Casa d’Arte Bragaglia in that city in the winter of 1918–19. In this period he was one of the leaders of the Gruppo Valori Plastici, with whom he showed at the Nationalgalerie in Berlin. His works are in the collection of the most important modern art museums of the world like MoMA in New York, Pompidou in Paris, Tate gallery in London and many others. He participated in the Venice Biennale for the first time in 1924. De Chirico died on November 20, 1978, in Rome.